SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected millions of people worlwide and caused a pandemic that is still ongoing. The virus can cause a disease named as COVID-19 which is composed of multi systemic manifestations with a pulmonary system predominance. As the time passes we are dealing more and more with the effects and complications of the disease in survivors which has shown a wide variety as far as concerns the clinical outcome and the timeline of symptoms in different patients. Since the lungs are the most involved organs and the post-COVID prolonged and persistent effects are mainly related to the pulmonary system it is crucial to define and predict the outcome and to determine the individuals that can progress to fibrosis and loss of function of lungs. This review summarizes the current literature regarding the pulmonary complications in post-COVID syndrome and the management of these conditions.

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An atlantoaxial subluxation from the unstable Os odontoideum by the failure of proper integrations between the embryological somites might be a commonly reported pathology. However, its suspicious origin or paralleled occurrence with other congenital anomalies of vertebral body might be a relatively rare phenomenon. The authors present two cases, who simply presented with clinical signs of prolonged, intractable cervicalgia without any neurological deficits, revealed this rare feature of C1-2 subluxation from the unstable, orthotropic type of Os odontoideum that coincide with congenitally fused cervical vertebral bodies between C2-3. Surprisingly, in one case, when traced from the lower cervical down to the thoracic-lumbar levels during the preoperative work-up process, was also compromised with multi-level butterfly vertebrae formations. Presented cases highlight the association of various congenital vertebrae anomalies and the rationale to fuse only affected joints.

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations among various radiological parameters used to determine cervical alignment from cervical spine radiographs (X-CS) and cervical spine computed tomography (CT-CS), both within and between modalities.

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The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for distal adding on (AO) or distal junctional kyphosis (DJK) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) treated by posterior spinal fusion (PSF) to L3 with a minimum 2-year follow-up.

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There is an extensive debate on the neurological consequences of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and its impact on Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients, which seems to puzzle neurologists. Links between viral infections and PD have long been suspected and studied, but the exact relationship remains elusive. Since severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) enters the brain through multiple routes and has a direct impact on the brain, cumulative damage occurs due to the activation of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. SARS-CoV-2 seems to aggravate PD due to its effects on α-synuclein, mitochondrial dysfunction, and dopamine depletion. A few studies have even highlighted the higher vulnerability of PD patients to COVID-19. The sudden dramatic change in lifestyle caused by the pandemic and the widespread lockdowns that were implemented have added to the hidden sorrows of PD patients, as they already have a compromised mechanism for coping with stress. This review summarizes insights from basic science and the clinical effect of SARS-CoV-2 infection on the human brain, with a specific focus on PD.

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The current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV- 2) has led to a serious global health crisis. Increasing evidence suggests that elderly individuals with underlying chronic diseases, including Parkinson’s disease (PD), are particularly vulnerable to this infection. Changes in the routine care of PD patients should be implemented carefully without affecting the quality provided. The utilization of telemedicine for clinical consultation, assessment and rehabilitation has also been widely recommended. Therefore, the aim of this review is to provide recommendations in the management of PD during the pandemic as well as in the early phase of vaccination programs to highlight the potential sequelae and future perspectives of vaccination and further research in PD. Even though a year has passed since COVID- 19 emerged, most of us are still facing great challenges in providing a continuum of care to patients with chronic neurological disorders. However, we should regard this health crisis as an opportunity to change our routine approach in managing PD patients and learn more about the impact of SARS-CoV-2. Hopefully, PD patients can be vaccinated promptly, and more detailed research related to PD in COVID-19 can still be carried out.

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Few studies have followed Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients from the time of diagnosis to the date of death. This study compared mortality in the Trondheim PD cohort to the general population, investigated causes of death and analyzed the associations between mortality and age at disease onset (AAO) and cognitive decline defined as Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) score below 26.

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A plethora of paraneoplastic syndromes have been reported as remote effects of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). However, there is a dearth of data pertaining to the association of this cancer with demyelinating neuropathies. Herein, we describe the case of a young woman diagnosed with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Treatment with intravenous immunoglobulins and prednisone did not improve her condition, and her neurological symptoms worsened. Subsequently, she was readmitted with exertional dyspnea, lightheadedness, malaise, and black stools. Colonoscopy revealed a necrotic mass in the ascending colon, which directly invaded the second part of the duodenum. Pathologic results confirmed the diagnosis of locally advanced CRC. Upon surgical resection of the cancer, her CIDP showed dramatic resolution without any additional therapy. Patients with CRC may develop CIDP as a type of paraneoplastic syndrome. Clinicians should remain cognizant of this potential association, as it is of paramount importance for the necessary holistic clinical management.

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Proteases are enzymes capable of catalyzing protein breakdown, which is critical across many biological processes. There are several families of proteases, each of which perform key functions through the degradation of specific proteins. As our understanding of cancer improves, it has been demonstrated that several proteases can be overactivated during the progression of cancer and contribute to malignancy. Optical imaging systems that employ near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent probes to detect protease activity offer clinical promise, both for early detection of cancer as well as for the assessment of personalized therapy. In this Review, we review the design of NIR probes and their successful application for the detection of different cancer-associated proteases.

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Superior vena cava syndrome corresponds to the set of symptoms and signs derived from total or partial obstruction of the superior vena cava or its tributary branches and is characterized by the appearance of facial swelling and cyanosis, dyspnea and development of cervico-thoracic superficial collateral venous circulation. When venous collaterals communicate the superior vena cava with the portal system through the periumbilical venous plexus, imaging studies may show a perfusion abnormality in the IVa hepatic segment known as the “hot spot” or “hot quadrate lobe” sign.