SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

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To delineate the nature and origin of a chromosomal aberration detected in a boy with mental retardation.

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Atrial enlargement in response to pathological stimuli (e.g., hypertension, mitral valve disease) and physiological stimuli (exercise, pregnancy) can be comparable in magnitude, but the diseased enlarged atria is associated with complications such as atrial fibrillation (AF), whereas physiological atrial enlargement is not. Pathological atrial enlargement and AF is also observed in a small percentage of athletes undergoing extreme/intense endurance sport and pregnant women with preeclampsia. Differences between physiological and pathological atrial enlargement and underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This review describes human and animal studies characterizing atrial enlargement under physiological and pathological conditions and highlights key knowledge gaps and clinical challenges, including: 1) the limited ability of atria to reverse remodel; and 2) distinguishing physiological and pathological enlargement via imaging/biomarkers. Finally, this review discusses how targeting distinct molecular mechanisms underlying physiological and pathological atrial enlargement could provide new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies for preventing or reversing atrial enlargement and AF.

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Exercise can improve both health and mood. Some beneficial effects of exercise are attributed to endocrine status. This study aims to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of basketball training on melatonin, serotonin, and hematologic parameters in basketball players.

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The novel coronavirus identified as severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Our aim in this study is to assess the incidence of life-threatening complications like pneumothorax, haemothorax, pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema, probable risk factors and effect on mortality in coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) ARDS patients treated with mechanical ventilation (MV). Data from 96 adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit with COVID-19 ARDS diagnosis from 11 March to 31 July 2020 were retrospectively assessed. A total of 75 patients abiding by the study criteria were divided into two groups as the group developing ventilator-related barotrauma (BG) (N = 10) and the group not developing ventilator-related barotrauma (NBG) (N = 65). In 10 patients (13%), barotrauma findings occurred 22 ± 3.6 days after the onset of symptoms. The mortality rate was 40% in the BG-group, while it was 29% in the NBG-group with no statistical difference identified. The BG-group had longer intensive care admission duration, duration of time in prone position and total MV duration, with higher max positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) levels and lower min pO2/FiO2 levels. The peak lactate dehydrogenase levels in blood were higher by statistically significant level in the BG-group (P < 0.05). The contribution of MV to alveolar injury caused by infection in COVID-19 ARDS patients may cause more frequent barotrauma compared to classic ARDS and this situation significantly increases the MV and intensive care admission durations of patients. In terms of reducing mortality and morbidity in these patients, MV treatment should be carefully maintained within the framework of lung-protective strategies and the studies researching barotrauma pathophysiology should be increased.

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This Editorial Comment discusses the following AJR article: Structural Heart 4D Flow MRI for Hemodynamic Assessment: How We Do It.

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This Editorial Comment discusses the following AJR article: Utility of ECG-Gated CTA for Detecting and Classifying Coronary Artery Involvement in Patients With Type A Aortic Dissection and Sinus of Valsalva Involvement.

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This Editorial Comment discusses the following AJR article: The Medical Malpractice Deposition: A Review for Radiologist Defendants.

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Invasive breast carcinoma of no special type (IBC-NST) is the most common type of breast cancer and mainly causes regional lymph-node metastasis (LNM). We investigated the potential for AKT2 expression as a predictive biomarker for LNM in IBC-NST.

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Urothelial carcinoma with an inverted growth pattern (UC-IGP) is a peculiar entity within the spectrum of urothelial lesions. While efforts have been made over the last few decades to unravel its carcinogenesis and relationship with conventional urothelial carcinoma, the exact classification of inverted urothelial lesions is a matter of debate. The morphological features of UC-IGP pose several issues in differential diagnosis with other mostly benign lesions. Various techniques, including immunohistochemistry, UroVysion, and many molecular methods, have been employed to study the exact nature of this lesion. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of the morphological and immunophenotypical aspects of UC-IGP. Moreover, we present and discuss the immunohistochemical and molecular markers involved in diagnosis and prognosis of UC-IGP lesions.

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Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is approved for all patient risk profiles and is an option for all patients irrespective of age. However, patients enrolled in the low- and intermediate-risk trials were in their 70s, and those in the high-risk trials were in their 80s. TAVR has never been systematically tested in young (<65 years), low-risk patients. Unanswered questions remain, including the safety and effectiveness of TAVR in patients with bicuspid aortic valves; future coronary access; durability of transcatheter heart valves; technical considerations for surgical transcatheter heart valve explantation; management of concomitant conditions such as aortopathy, mitral valve disease, and coronary artery disease; and the safety and feasibility of future TAVR-in-TAVR. The authors predict that balancing these questions with patients' clear preference for less invasive treatment will become common. In this paper, the authors consider each of these questions and discuss risks and benefits of theoretical treatment strategies in the lifetime management of young patients with severe aortic stenosis.